R. M. Kiehn "Falaco Solitons"
The Falaco Soliton consists of two 2- dimensional (surface) defects of
rotational torsion shears connected together by a 1- dimensional string defect
which acts to globally connect and stabilize the surface defects. The effect
can occur at all scales, offering a possible new spin pairing mechanism in the
Fermi surface, or possibly a thread connection from the nucleus of M31 to the
nucleus of our Milkway galaxy