R. M. Kiehn "Periods on manfolds, quantization and gauge" J. of Math Phys Vol
18, no. 4, (1977) p. 614

**Abstract: **It is suggested that the quantization of flux, charge, and
angular momentum be interpreted as a set of independent natural concepts which
physically exhibit certain topological properties of the fields on a space-time
manifold. These quantum or topological properties may be described in terms of
one-, two-, and three-dimensional period integrals, respectively. In terms of
this viewpoint, topological constraints between the one-, two-, and
three-dimensional periods can be put into correspondence with various gauge
theories. If a dynamical system is to be nondissipative, in the sense that its
one-, two-, and three-dimensional topological periods are reversible invariants
of the motion, then it is proved herein that the dynamical field, V, must be a
Hamiltonian vector field, the field currents must be proportional to V, and the
Lagrangian difference between the elastic and inertial energy density must be
twice the interaction energy density, respectively.